Tuesday, 13 November 2012

Getting up to speed with Bloomberg's Open API...

A good portion of any devs life is usually spent playing with APIs. If you need to integrate some other system into the system you're working on (and it's rare to come upon a situation where this doesn't happen at some point) then it's API time.

Some APIs are well documented and nice to use. Some aren't. I recently spent a goodly period of time investigating Bloomberg's Open API and it was a slightly painful experience. So much so that I thought it best to write up my own experiences and maybe I can save others time and a bit of pain.

Also, as I investigated the Bloomberg Open API I found myself coming up with my own little mini-C#-API. (It's generally a sure sign you've found an API you don't love if you end up writing your own wrapper.) This mini API did the heavy lifting for me and just handed back nicely structured data to deal with. I have included this wrapper here as well.


The initial plan was to, through code, extract Libor and Euribor rates from Bloomberg. I had access to a Bloomberg terminal and I had access to the internet - what could stop me? After digging around for a little while I found some useful resources that could be accessed from the Bloomberg terminal:

  1. Typing “WAPI<GO>” into Bloomberg lead me to the Bloomberg API documentation.
  2. Typing “DOCS 2055451<GO>” into Bloomberg (I know - it's a bit cryptic) provided me with samples of how to use the Bloomberg API in VBA

WAPI - pretty, no?

To go with this I found some useful documentation of the Bloomberg Open API here and I found the .NET Bloomberg Open API itself here.

Hello World?

The first goal when getting up to speed with an API is getting it to do something. Anything. Just stick a fork into it and see if it croaks. Sticking a fork into Open API was achieved by taking the 30-odd example apps included in the Bloomberg Open API and running each in turn on the Bloomberg box until I had my "he's alive!!" moment. (I did find it surprising that not all of the examples worked - I don't know if there's a good reason for this...)

However, when I tried to write my own C# console application to interrogate the Open API it wasn't as plain sailing as I'd hoped. I'd write something that looked correct, compiled successfully and deploy it onto the Bloomberg terminal only to have it die a sad death whenever I tried to fire it off.

I generally find the fastest way to get up and running with an API is to debug it. To make calls to the API and then examine, field by field and method by method, what is actually there. This wasn't really an option with my console app though. I was using a shared Bloomberg terminal with very limited access. No Visual Studio on the box and no remote debugging enabled.

It was then that I had something of a eureka moment. I realised that the code in the VBA samples I'd downloaded from Bloomberg looked quite similar to the C# code samples that shipped with Open API. Hmmmm.... Shortly after this I found myself sat at the Bloomberg machine debugging the Bloomberg API using the VBA IDE in Excel. (For the record, these debugging tools are aren't too bad at all - they're nowhere near as slick as their VS counterparts but they do the job.) This was my Rosetta Stone - I could take what I'd learned from the VBA samples and translate that into equivalent C# / .NET code (bearing in mind what I'd learned from debugging in Excel and in fact sometimes bringing along the VBA comments themselves if they provided some useful insight).

He's the Bloomberg, I'm the Wrapper

So I'm off and romping... I have something that works. Hallelujah! Now that that hurdle had been crossed I found myself examining the actual Bloomberg API code itself. It functioned just fine but it did a couple of things that I wasn't too keen on:

  1. The Bloomberg API came with custom data types. I didn't want to use these unless it was absolutely necessary - I just wanted to stick to the standard .NET types. This way if I needed to hand data onto another application I wouldn't be making each of these applications dependant on the Bloomberg Open API.
  2. To get the data out of the Bloomberg API there was an awful lot of boilerplate. Code which handled the possibilities of very large responses that might be split into several packages. Code which walked the element tree returned from Bloomberg parsing out the data. It wasn't a beacon of simplicity.

I wanted an API that I could simply invoke with security codes and required fields. And in return I wanted to be passed nicely structured data. As I've already mentioned a desire to not introduce unnecessary dependencies I thought it might well suit to make use of nested Dictionaries. I came up with a simple C# Console project / application which had a reference to the Bloomberg Open API. It contained the following class; essentially my wrapper for Open API operations: (please note this is deliberately a very "bare-bones" implementation)

The project also contained this class which demonstrates how I made use of my wrapper:

And here's what the output looked like:

This covered my bases. It was simple, it was easy to consume and it didn't require any custom types. My mini-API is only really catering for my own needs (unsurprisingly). However, there's lots more to the Bloomberg Open API and I may end up taking this further in the future if I encounter use cases that my current API doesn't cover.

Update (07/12/2012)

Finally, a PS. I found in the Open API FAQs that "Testing any of that functionality currently requires a valid Bloomberg Desktop API (DAPI), Server API (SAPI) or Managed B-Pipe subscription. Bloomberg is planning on releasing a stand-alone simulator which will not require a subscription." There isn't any word yet on this stand-alone simulator. I emailed Bloomberg at [email protected] to ask about this. They kindly replied that "Unfortunately it is not yet available. We understand that this makes testing API applications somewhat impractical, so we're continuing to work on this tool." Fingers crossed for something we can test soon!

Note to self (because I keep forgetting)

If you're looking to investigate what data is available about a security in Bloomberg it's worth typing “FLDS<GO>” into Bloomberg. This is the Bloomberg Fields Finder. Likewise, if you're trying to find a security you could try typing “SECF<GO>” into Bloomberg as this is the Security Finder.

Friday, 2 November 2012

XSD/XML Schema Generator + Xsd.exe:
Taking the pain out of manual XML

Is it 2003 again?!?

I've just discovered Xsd.exe. It's not new. Or shiny. And in fact it's been around since .NET 1.1. Truth be told, I've been aware of it for years but up until now I've not had need of it. But now now I've investigated it a bit I've found that it, combined with the XSD/XML Schema Generator can make for a nice tool to add to the utility belt.

Granted XML has long since stopped being sexy. But if you need it, as I did recently, then this is for you.

To the XML Batman!

Now XML is nothing new to me (or I imagine anyone who's been developing within the last 10 years). But most of the time when I use XML I'm barely aware that it's going on - by and large it's XML doing the heavy lifting underneath my web services. But the glory of this situation is, I never have to think about it. It just works. All I have to deal with are nice strongly typed objects which makes writing robust code a doddle.

I recently came upon a situation where I was working with XML in the raw; that is to say strings. I was going to be supplied with strings of XML which would represent various objects. It would be my job to take the supplied XML, extract out the data I needed and proceed accordingly.

We Don't Need No Validation...

I lied!

In order to write something reliable I needed to be able to validate that the supplied XML was as I expected. So, XSD time. If you're familiar with XML then you're probably equally familar with XSD which, to quote Wikipedia "can be used to express a set of rules to which an XML document must conform in order to be considered 'valid'".

Now I've written my fair share of XSDs over the years and I've generally found it a slightly tedious exercise. So I was delighted to discover an online tool to simplify the task. It's called the XSD/XML Schema Generator. What this marvellous tool does is allow you to enter an example of your XML which it then uses to reverse engineer an XSD.

Here's an example. I plugged in this:

And pulled out this:

Fantastic! It doesn't matter if the tool gets something slightly wrong; you can tweak the generated XSD to your hearts content. This is great because it does the hard work for you, allowing you to step back, mop your brow and then heartily approve the results. This tool is a labour saving device. Put simply, it's a dishwasher.

Tools of the Trade

How to get to the actual data? I was initially planning to break out the XDocument, plug in my XSD and use the Validate method. Which would do the job just dandy.

However I resisted. As much as I like LINQ to XML I turned to use Xsd.exe instead. As I've mentioned, this tool is as old as the hills. But there's gold in them thar hills, listen: "The XML Schema Definition (Xsd.exe) tool generates XML schema or common language runtime classes from XDR, XML, and XSD files, or from classes in a runtime assembly."

Excited? Thought not. But what this means is we can hurl our XSD at this tool and it will toss back a nicely formatted C# class for me to use. Good stuff! So how's it done? Well MSDN is roughly as informative as it ever is (which is to say, not terribly) but fortunately there's not a great deal to it. You fire up the Visual Studio Command Prompt (and I advise doing this in Administrator mode to escape permissions pain). Then you enter a command to generate your class. Here's an example using the Contact.xsd file we generated earlier:

xsd.exe "C:\\Contact.xsd" /classes /out:"C:\\" /namespace:"MyNameSpace"

Generation looks like this:

Never let it be said that the command line lacks visual flair...

And you're left with the lovely Contact.cs class:

Justify Your Actions

But why is this good stuff? Indeed why is this more interesting than the newer, and hence obviously cooler, LINQ to XML? Well for my money it's the following reasons that are important:

  1. Intellisense - I have always loved this. Call me lazy but I think intellisense frees up the mind to think about what problem you're actually trying to solve. Xsd.exe's generated classes give me that; I don't need to hold the whole data structure in my head as I code.
  2. Terse code - I'm passionate about less code. I think that a noble aim in software development is to write as little code as possible in order to achieve your aims. I say this as generally I have found that writing a minimal amount of code expresses the intention of the code in a far clearer fashion. In service of that aim Xsd.exe's generated classes allow me to write less code than would be required with LINQ to XML.
  3. To quote Scott Hanselman "successful compilation is just the first unit test". That it is but it's a doozy. If I'm making changes to the code and I've been using LINQ to XML I'm not going to see the benefits of strong typing that I would with Xsd.exe's generated classes. I like learning if I've broken the build sooner rather than later; strong typing gives me that safety net.

Serialization / Deserialization Helper

As you read this you're no doubt thinking "but wait he's shown us how to create XSDs from XML and classes from XSDs but how do we take XML and turn it into objects? And how do we turn those objects back into XML?"

See how I read your mind just there? It's a gift. Well, I've written a little static helper class for the very purpose:

And here's an example of how to use it:

I was tempted to name my methods in tribute to Crockford's JSON (namely ToXML becoming stringify and ToObject becoming parse). Maybe later.

And that's us done. Whilst it's no doubt unfashionable I think that this is a very useful approach indeed and I commend it to the interweb!

Update - using Xsd.exe to generate XSD from XML

I was chatting to a friend about this blog post and he mentioned that you can actually use Xsd.exe to generate XSD files from XML as well. He's quite right - this feature does exist. To go back to our example from earlier we can execute the following command:

xsd.exe "C:\\Contact.xml" /out:"C:\\"

And this will generate the following file:

However, the XSD generated above is very much a "Microsoft XSD"; it's an XSD which features MS properties and so on. It's fine but I think that generally I prefer my XSDs to be as vanilla as possible. To that end I'm likely to stick to using the XSD/XML Schema Generator as it doesn't appear to be possible to get Xsd.exe to generate "vanilla XSD".

Thanks to Ajay for bringing it to my attention though.