Wednesday, 26 November 2014

Pretending to be someone you're not and the dark pit of despair

(Coded UI, IE 11 and the "runas" problem)

"I'm not angry, I'm just disappointed."

That's kind of how I feel about Coded UI tests. It may well be that you've never heard of them - in my experience very few people seem to be aware of them. What are they? Well, I've never used Selenium but as best I understand Coded UI is Microsoft's own version of that. Namely it's a way to automate testing, in my case browser-based testing. You can write a suite of tests that will spin up your application and test it out, going from screen to screen, URL to URL and asserting all is as you would expect.

The project that I'm currently working on has a pretty comprehensive set of tests covering the use of the application. Each night as the clock strikes midnight a lonely computer in the West End of London whirrs into life and runs the full suite. It takes about 8 hours and at the end a report slips into your inbox letting you know of any failures.

Sounds brilliant right? How could someone not love this?

Well a number of reasons. First of all, it takes 8 hours!!!! That's a long time; I'd rather learn what I broke today rather than tomorrow.

Also, and this is probably more significant, Coded UI tests are pretty flaky. Let me qualify that. For a test to be particularly useful it has to be quick, repeatable and reliable. As I've said, Coded UI tests are not quick.

By their very nature integration tests (of which Coded UI tests are a type) can never be entirely reliably repeatable. They test your app in it's entirety. So, for example, if a 3rd party service goes down for 5 minutes then you will get failed tests. You'll burn time investigating these false positives.

Further to that, Coded UI tests are repeatable, except when they're not. I've seen colleagues reduced to near tears by incredible sensitivity of Coded UI tests. Out of the box Coded UI tests appear to ship with the "Works on my machine" guarantee. It requires far more effort that you'd expect to come up with tests that can be reliably expected to pass. They will fail for surprising reasons. For instance, did you know that using the 2.x branch of jQuery won't work with Coded UI? Neither did I. I've lost track of the time that has been wasted running the same test in multiple different environments trying to identify what exactly is upsetting Coded UI about the environment this time.

It is sad but true that with Coded UI tests you can spend an enormous amount of time maintaining the test pack on a day to day basis. As infrastructure and project dependencies are upgraded you will sadly discover Coded UI has once again gone into the foetal position and has to tempted back to normal functioning by whispering sweet nothings in it's ear. ("It's not true that they've ended support for Windows XP" / "IE 6 will live forever" and so on)

Coded UI also appears to be badly supported by Microsoft. Documentation is pretty sparse and, as we'll come back to in a minute, Coded UI is sometimes broken or damaged by other products shipped by Microsoft. This makes it hard to have faith in Coded UI. Indeed, if you're thinking of automating your QA testing my advice would be "look into Selenium". Not because I've used it (I haven't) but those I've met who have used Selenium and Coded UI say Selenium wins hands down.

And yet, and yet...

All of the above said, if you have a Coded UI test suite it can still pay dividends. Significant dividends. As I mentioned, my current project has a significant coverage of Coded UI tests. We've crawled over a lot of broken glass to put these together. But now they're there it is undeniably useful.

Every now and then we'll do a significant refactor of part of the application. For instance, we've entirely changed our persistence strategy in the app but been able to check the code in with a high degree of confidence gleaned from running our test suite using the refactored codebase.

Let me be clear: Coded UI tests can be useful.

The "runas" Problem

Long preamble over, this post is about how to work around the latest issue Coded UI has thrown in our direction. I call it the "runas" problem. Our application is a Knockout / ASP.Net MVC web app built to be used in an intranet environment. By that I mean that identity is handled by Active Directory / Windows Authentication. When someone logs into our app we know who they are without them having to directly supply us with a username and password. No, by logging into their computer they have announced just who they are and Internet Explorer (for it is he) will pass along the credentials. (The app can be used with pretty much any browser but we're only mandated to support IE 9+.)

In order that we can test the app we have a number of test accounts set up in Active Directory. These test accounts have been assigned various roles (viewer / editor / administrator etc). Our tests are designed to run using these accounts in order that all scenarios can be adequately tested.

To achieve this lofty goal the following code (or something very like it) is executed as the first step in any Coded UI test:

string browserLocation = "C:\\Program Files\\Internet Explorer\\iexplore.exe";
string url = "http://localhost:12345/";
string username = "test.editor";
string domain = "theDomain";
var password = new SecureString();
foreach (char c in "test.editor.password")

ApplicationUnderTest.Launch(browserLocation, null, url, username, password, domain);

What this does is fire up Internet Explorer as the supplied user of theDomain\test.editor, and navigate to the home page. With that as our starting place we could dependably then run a test as this test user. This was a solution not without quirks (on occasion Coded UI tests would "stutter" - repeating each keypress 3 times with calamitous effects). But generally, this worked.

Until that is either Visual Studio 2013 Update 3 or Internet Explorer 11 was installed. One of these (and it appears to be hotly contested) broke the ability to run the above code successfully. After these were installed running the above code resulted in the following error message:

"The application cannot be started. This could be due to one of the following reasons:

  1. Another instance of the application is already running and only one instance can be running at a time.
  2. The application started another process and has now stopped. You may need to launch the process directly.
  3. You do not have sufficient privileges for this application." File: C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\iexplore.exe."

Lamentably, this was pretty much unresolvable and logging it with Microsoft yielded nothing helpful. This is what I mean about Coded UI being badly supported by Microsoft. Despite my best efforts to report this issue both to Connect and elsewhere and in the end nothing useful happened.

So what to do? I still have Coded UI tests, I still need to be able to run them. And crucially I need to be able to run them impersonating a different user. What to do indeed....

The hack workaround

After IE 11 / Visual Studio Update 3 / whatev's was installed I was left with a setup that allowed me to run Coded UI tests, but only as the current user. On that basis I started looking into a little MVC jiggery pokery. All my controllers inherit from a single base controller. Inside there I placed the following extra override:

public abstract class BaseController : System.Web.Mvc.Controller

  protected override void OnAuthorization(AuthorizationContext filterContext)
    if (filterContext.HttpContext.IsDebuggingEnabled)// Is compilation debug="true" set in the web.config?
      var userToImpersonate = Session["UserToImpersonate"] as string;
      if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(userToImpersonate))
        // userToImpersonate example: "[email protected]"
        filterContext.HttpContext.User = new RolePrincipal(new WindowsIdentity(userToImpersonate));


Each request will trigger this method as one of the first steps in the MVC pipeline. What it does is checks the Session for a user to impersonate. (Yes I'm as wary of Session as the next chap - but in this case it's the right tool for the job.) If a user has been specified then it replaces the current user with the Session user. From this point forwards the app is effectively running as that user. That's great!

In order that Coded UI can make use of this mechanism we need to introduce a "hook". This is going to look a bit hacky - bear with me. Inside Global.asax.cs we're going to add a Session_Start method:

protected void Session_Start(object sender, EventArgs eventArgs)
    // If a user to impersonate has been supplied then add this user to the session
    // Impersonation will happen in the OnAuthorization method of our base MVC controller
    // Note, this is only allowed in debug mode - not in release mode
    // This exists purely to support coded ui tests
    if (Context.IsDebuggingEnabled)  // Is compilation debug="true" set in the web.config?
        var userToImpersonate = Request.QueryString["UserToImpersonate"] as string;
        if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(userToImpersonate))
            Session.Add("UserToImpersonate", userToImpersonate);

For the first Request in a Session this checks the QueryString for a parameter called UserToImpersonate. If it's found then it's placed into Session. With this hook exposed we can now amend the first step that all our Coded UI tests follow:

// Various lines commented out as doesn't work with IE 11 - left as an example of how it could be done in the past
//string browserLocation = "C:\\Program Files\\Internet Explorer\\iexplore.exe";
string url = "http://localhost:12345/";
string username = "test.editor";
string domain = "";
//var password = new SecureString();
//foreach (char c in "test.editor.password")
//    password.AppendChar(c);

//ApplicationUnderTest.Launch(browserLocation, null, url, username, password, domain);

// Suffixing url with UrlToImpersonate which will be picked up in Session_Start and used to impersonate
// in OnAuthorization in BaseController.  Also no longer using ApplicationUnderTest.Launch; switched to 
// BrowserWindow.Launch
// No longer used parameters: browserLocation, password
var userToImpersonate = username + "@" + domain; // eg "[email protected]"
var urlWithUser = url + "?UserToImpersonate=" + HttpUtility.UrlEncode(userToImpersonate);
var browser = BrowserWindow.Launch(urlWithUser, "-nomerge"); // "-nomerge" flag forces a new session

As you can see we actually need less when we're using this approach. We no longer need to directly specify the password or the browser location. And the user to impersonate is now passed in as the part of the initial URL used to launch the test.

Pay careful attention to the "-nomerge" flag that is passed in. This ensures that when another browser instance is opened a new session will be started. This is essential for "multi-user" tests that run tests for different users as part of the same test. It ensures that "test.editor" and "test.different.editor" can co-exist happily.

What do I think of the workaround?

This approach works reliably and dependably. More so than the original approach which on occasion wouldn't work or would "stutter" keypresses. That's the good news.

The not so good news is that this approach is, in my view, a bit of hack. I want you to know that this isn't my ideal.

I really don't like having to change the actual system code to facilitate the impersonation requirement. Naturally we only ship the release and not the debug builds to Production so the "back door" that this approach provides will not exist in our Production builds. It will only be accessible in our development environments and on our Coded UI test server. But it feels oh so wrong that there is an effective potential back door in the system now. Well, only if the stars were to align in a really terrible (and admittedly rather unlikely) way. But still, you take my point. Caveat emptor and all that. This is something of a cutdown example to illustrate the point. If anyone else intends to use this then I'd suggest doing more to safeguard your approach. Implementing impersonation whitelists so "any" user cannot be impersonated would be a sensible precaution to start with.

Perhaps this is just one more reason that I'm not that enamoured of Coded UI. Once again it is useful but I've had to compromise more than I'd like to keep it's use. If anyone out there has a better solution I would love to hear from you.

Tuesday, 4 November 2014

How I learned to stop worrying and love the Task Runner Explorer

(Using Gulp in Visual Studio instead of Web Optimization)

Update 17/02/2015: I've taken the approach discussed in this post a little further - you can see here

I've used a number of tools to package up JavaScript and CSS in my web apps. Andrew Davey's tremendous Cassette has been really useful. Also good (although less powerful/magical) has been Microsoft's very own Microsoft.AspNet.Web.Optimization that ships with MVC.

I was watching the ASP.NET Community Standup from October 7th, 2014 and learned that the ASP.Net team is not planning to migrate Microsoft.AspNet.Web.Optimization to the next version of ASP.Net. Instead they're looking to make use of JavaScript task runners like Grunt and maybe Gulp. Perhaps you're even dimly aware that they've been taking steps to make these runners more of a first class citizen in Visual Studio, hence the recent release of the new and groovy Task Runner Explorer.

Gulp has been on my radar for a while now as has Grunt. By "on my radar" what I really mean is "Hmmmm, I really need to learn this..... perhaps I could wait until the Betamax vs VHS battles are done? Oh never mind, here we go...".

My understanding is that Grunt and Gulp essentially do the same thing (run tasks in JavaScript) but have different approaches. Grunt is more about configuration, Gulp is more about code. At present Gulp also has a performance advantage as it does less IO than Grunt - though I understand that's due to change in the future. But generally my preference is code over configuration. On that basis I decided that I was going to give Gulp first crack.

Bub bye Web Optimization

I already had a project that used Web Optimization to bundle JavaScript and CSS files. When debugging on my own machine Web Optimization served up the full JavaScript and CSS files. Thanks to the magic of source maps I was able to debug the TypeScript that created the JavaScript files too. Which was nice. When I deployed to production, Web Optimization minified and concatenated the JavaScript and CSS files. This meant I had a single HTTP request for JavaScript and a single HTTP request for CSS. This was also... nooice!

I took a copy of my existing project and created a new repo for it on GitHub. It was very simple in terms of bundling. It had a BundleConfig that created 2 bundles; 1 for JavaScript and 1 for CSS:

using System.Web;
using System.Web.Optimization;

namespace Proverb.Web
    public class BundleConfig
        // For more information on bundling, visit
        public static void RegisterBundles(BundleCollection bundles)
            var angularApp = new ScriptBundle("~/angularApp").Include(

                // Vendor Scripts 


                // Bootstrapping

                // common Modules

                // common.bootstrap Modules

            // directives
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/directives", "*.js", true);

            // services
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/services", "*.js", true);

            // controllers
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/admin", "*.js", true);
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/about", "*.js", true);
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/dashboard", "*.js", true);
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/layout", "*.js", true);
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/sayings", "*.js", true);
            angularApp.IncludeDirectory("~/app/sages", "*.js", true);


            bundles.Add(new StyleBundle("~/Content/css").Include(

I set myself a task. I wanted to be able to work in *exactly* the way I was working now. But using Gulp instead of Web Optimization. I wanted to lose the BundleConfig above and remove Web Optimization from my application, secure in the knowledge that I had lost nothing. Could it be done? Read on!

Installing Gulp (and Associates)

I fired up Visual Studio and looked for an excuse to use the Task Runner Explorer. The first thing I needed was Gulp. My machine already had Node and NPM installed so I went to the command line to install Gulp globally:

npm install gulp -g

Now to start to plug Gulp into my web project. It was time to make the introductions: Visual Studio meet NPM. At the root of the web project I created a package.json file by executing the following command and accepting all the defaults:

npm init

I wanted to add Gulp as a development dependency of my project: ("Development" because I only need to run tasks at development time. My app has no dependency on Gulp at runtime - at that point it's just about serving up static files.)

npm install gulp --save-dev

This installs gulp local to the project as a development dependency. As a result we now have a "node_modules" folder sat in our root which contains our node packages. Currently, as our package.json reveals, this is only gulp:

  "devDependencies": {
    "gulp": "^3.8.8"

It's time to go to town. Let's install all the packages we're going to need to bundle and minify JavaScript and CSS:

npm install gulp-concat gulp-uglify gulp-rev del path gulp-ignore gulp-asset-manifest gulp-minify-css --save-dev

This installs the packages as dev dependencies (as you've probably guessed) and leaves us with a list of dev dependencies like this:

  "devDependencies": {
    "del": "^0.1.3",
    "gulp": "^3.8.8",
    "gulp-asset-manifest": "0.0.5",
    "gulp-concat": "^2.4.1",
    "gulp-ignore": "^1.2.1",
    "gulp-minify-css": "^0.3.10",
    "gulp-rev": "^1.1.0",
    "gulp-uglify": "^1.0.1",
    "path": "^0.4.9"

Making gulpfile.js

So now I was ready. I had everything I needed to replace my BundleConfig.cs. I created a new file called gulpfile.js in the root of my web project that looked like this:

/// <vs AfterBuild='default' />
var gulp = require("gulp");

// Include Our Plugins
var concat = require("gulp-concat");
var ignore = require("gulp-ignore");
var manifest = require("gulp-asset-manifest");
var minifyCss = require("gulp-minify-css");
var uglify = require("gulp-uglify");
var rev = require("gulp-rev");
var del = require("del");
var path = require("path");

var tsjsmapjsSuffix = ".{ts,,js}";
var excludetsjsmap = "**/*.{ts,}";

var bundleNames = { scripts: "scripts", styles: "styles" };

var filesAndFolders = {

    base: ".",
    buildBaseFolder: "./build/",
    debug: "debug",
    release: "release",
    css: "css",

    // The fonts we want Gulp to process
    fonts: ["./fonts/*.*"],

    // The scripts we want Gulp to process - adapted from BundleConfig
    scripts: [
        // Vendor Scripts 


        // Bootstrapping
        "./app/app" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/config.route" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,

        // common Modules
        "./app/common/common" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/common/logger" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/common/spinner" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,

        // common.bootstrap Modules
        "./app/common/bootstrap/bootstrap.dialog" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,

        // directives
        "./app/directives/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,

        // services
        "./app/services/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,

        // controllers
        "./app/about/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/admin/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/dashboard/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/layout/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/sages/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix,
        "./app/sayings/**/*" + tsjsmapjsSuffix

    // The styles we want Gulp to process - adapted from BundleConfig
    styles: [

filesAndFolders.debugFolder = filesAndFolders.buildBaseFolder + "/" + filesAndFolders.debug + "/";
filesAndFolders.releaseFolder = filesAndFolders.buildBaseFolder + "/" + filesAndFolders.release + "/";

 * Create a manifest depending upon the supplied arguments
 * @param {string} manifestName
 * @param {string} bundleName
 * @param {boolean} includeRelativePath
 * @param {string} pathPrepend
function getManifest(manifestName, bundleName, includeRelativePath, pathPrepend) {

    // Determine filename ("./build/manifest-debug.json" or "./build/manifest-release.json"
    var manifestFile = filesAndFolders.buildBaseFolder + "manifest-" + manifestName + ".json";

    return manifest({
        bundleName: bundleName,
        includeRelativePath: includeRelativePath,
        manifestFile: manifestFile,
        log: true,
        pathPrepend: pathPrepend,
        pathSeparator: "/"

// Delete the build folder
gulp.task("clean", function (cb) {
    del([filesAndFolders.buildBaseFolder], cb);

// Copy across all files in filesAndFolders.scripts to build/debug
gulp.task("scripts-debug", ["clean"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.scripts, { base: filesAndFolders.base })

// Create a manifest.json for the debug build - this should have lots of script files in
gulp.task("manifest-scripts-debug", ["scripts-debug"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.scripts, { base: filesAndFolders.base })
        .pipe(ignore.exclude("**/*.{ts,}")) // Exclude ts and files from the manifest (as they won't become script tags)
        .pipe(getManifest(filesAndFolders.debug, bundleNames.scripts, true));

// Copy across all files in filesAndFolders.styles to build/debug
gulp.task("styles-debug", ["clean"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.styles, { base: filesAndFolders.base })

// Create a manifest.json for the debug build - this should have lots of style files in
gulp.task("manifest-styles-debug", ["styles-debug", "manifest-scripts-debug"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.styles, { base: filesAndFolders.base })
        //.pipe(ignore.exclude("**/*.{ts,}")) // Exclude ts and files from the manifest (as they won't become script tags)
        .pipe(getManifest(filesAndFolders.debug, bundleNames.styles, true));

// Concatenate & Minify JS for release into a single file
gulp.task("scripts-release", ["clean"], function () {

    return gulp
        .pipe(ignore.exclude("**/*.{ts,}"))        // Exclude ts and files - not needed in release mode
        .pipe(concat("app.js"))                          // Make a single file - if you want to see the contents then include the line below                                          
        .pipe(uglify())                                  // Make the file titchy tiny small
        .pipe(rev())                                     // Suffix a version number to it
        .pipe(gulp.dest(filesAndFolders.releaseFolder)); // Write single versioned file to build/release folder

// Create a manifest.json for the release build - this should just have a single file for scripts
gulp.task("manifest-scripts-release", ["scripts-release"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.buildBaseFolder + filesAndFolders.release + "/*.js")
        .pipe(getManifest(filesAndFolders.release, bundleNames.scripts, false));

// Copy across all files in filesAndFolders.styles to build/debug
gulp.task("styles-release", ["clean"], function () {

    return gulp
        .pipe(concat("app.css"))          // Make a single file - if you want to see the contents then include the line below

        .pipe(minifyCss())                // Make the file titchy tiny small
        .pipe(rev())                      // Suffix a version number to it
        .pipe(gulp.dest(filesAndFolders.releaseFolder + "/" + filesAndFolders.css)); // Write single versioned file to build/release folder

// Create a manifest.json for the debug build - this should have a single style files in
gulp.task("manifest-styles-release", ["styles-release", "manifest-scripts-release"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.releaseFolder + "**/*.css")
        .pipe(getManifest(filesAndFolders.release, bundleNames.styles, false, filesAndFolders.css + "/"));

// Copy across all fonts in filesAndFolders.fonts to both release and debug locations
gulp.task("fonts", ["clean"], function () {

    return gulp
        .src(filesAndFolders.fonts, { base: filesAndFolders.base })

// Default Task
gulp.task("default", [
    "scripts-debug", "manifest-scripts-debug", "styles-debug", "manifest-styles-debug",
    "scripts-release", "manifest-scripts-release", "styles-release", "manifest-styles-release",

What gulpfile.js does

This file does a number of things each time it is run. First of all it deletes any build folder in the root of the web project so we're ready to build anew. Then it packages up files both for debug and for release mode. For debug it does the following:

  1. It copies the ts, and js files declared in filesAndFolders.scripts to the build/debug folder preserving their original folder structure. (So, for example, app/app.ts, app/ and app/app.js will all end up at build/debug/app/app.ts, build/debug/app/ and build/debug/app/app.js respectively.) This is done to allow the continued debugging of the original TypeScript files when running in debug mode.
  2. It copies the css files declared in filesAndFolders.styles to the build/debug folder preserving their original folder structure. (So content/bootstrap.css will end up at build/debug/content/bootstrap.css.)
  3. It creates a build/manifest-debug.json file which contains details of all the script and style files that have been packaged up:

For release our gulpfile works with the same resources but has a different aim. Namely to minimise the the number of HTTP requests, obfuscate the code and version the files produced to prevent caching issues. To achieve those lofty aims it does the following:

  1. It concatenates together all the js files declared in filesAndFolders.scripts, minifies them and writes them to a single build/release/app-{xxxxx}.js file (where -{xxxxx} represents a version created by gulp-rev).
  2. It concatenates together all the css files declared in filesAndFolders.styles, minifies them and writes them to a single build/release/css/app-{xxxxx}.css file. The file is placed in a css subfolder because of relative paths specified in the CSS file.
  3. It creates a build/manifest-release.json file which contains details of all the script and style files that have been packaged up:
    As you can see, the number of files included are reduced down to 2; 1 for JavaScript and 1 for CSS.

Finally, for both the debug and release packages the contents of the fonts folder is copied across wholesale, preserving the original folder structure. This is because the CSS files contain relative references that point to the font files. If I had image files which were referenced by my CSS I'd similarly need to include these in the build process.

Task Runner Explorer gets in on the action

The eagle eyed amongst you will also have noticed a peculiar first line to our gulpfile.js:

/// <vs AfterBuild='default' />

This mysterious comment is actually how the Task Runner Explorer hooks our gulpfile.js into the Visual Studio build process. Our "magic comment" ensures that on the AfterBuild event, Task Runner Explorer runs the default task in our gulpfile.js. The reason we're using the AfterBuild event rather than the BeforeBuild event is because our project contains TypeScript and we need the transpiled JavaScript to be created before we can usefully run our package tasks. If we were using JavaScript alone then that wouldn't be an issue and either build event would do.

How do I use this in my HTML?

Well this is magnificent - we have a gulpfile that builds our debug and release packages. The question now is, how do we use it?

Web Optimization made our lives really easy. Up in my head I had a @Styles.Render("~/Content/css") which pushed out my CSS and down at the foot of the body tag I had a @Scripts.Render("~/angularApp") which pushed out my script tags. Styles and Scripts are server-side utilities. It would be very easy to write equivalent utility classes that, depending on whether we were in debug or not, read the appropriate build/manifest-xxxxxx.json file and served up either debug or release style / script tags.

That would be pretty simple - and for what it's worth simple is good. But today I felt like a challenge. What say server side rendering had been outlawed? A draconian ruling had been passed and all you had to play with was HTML / JavaScript and a server API that served up JSON? What would you do then? (All fantasy I know... But go with me on this - it's a journey.) Or more sensibly, what if you just want to remove some of the work your app is doing server-side to bundle and minify. Just serve up static assets instead. Spend less money in Azure why not?

Before I make all the changes let's review where we were. I had a single MVC view which, in terms of bundles, CSS and JavaScript pretty much looked like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <!-- ... -->
    <!-- ... -->

    (function () {
            .done(function (startUpData) {

                var appConfig = $.extend({}, startUpData, {
                    appRoot: '@Url.Content("~/")',
                    remoteServiceRoot: '@Url.Content("~/api/")'

                    thirdPartyLibs: {
                        moment: window.moment,
                        toastr: window.toastr,
                        underscore: window._
                    appConfig: appConfig

This is already more a complicated example than most peoples use cases. Essentially what's happening here is both bundles are written out as part of the HTML and then, once the scripts have loaded the Angular app is bootstrapped with some configuration loaded from the server by a good old jQuery AJAX call.

After reading an article about script loading by the magnificently funny Jake Archibald I felt ready. I cast my MVC view to the four winds and created myself a straight HTML file:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <!-- ... -->
    <!-- ... -->

    <script src="Scripts/jquery-2.1.1.min.js"></script>
        (function () {

            var appConfig = {};
            var scriptsToLoad;

             * Handler which fires as each script loads
            function onScriptLoad(event) {

                scriptsToLoad -= 1;

                // Now all the scripts are present start the app
                if (scriptsToLoad === 0) {
                        thirdPartyLibs: {
                            moment: window.moment,
                            toastr: window.toastr,
                            underscore: window._
                        appConfig: appConfig

            // Load startup data from the server
                .done(function (startUpData) {

                    appConfig = startUpData;

                    // Determine the assets folder depending upon whether in debug mode or not
                    var buildFolder = appConfig.appRoot + "build/";
                    var debugOrRelease = (appConfig.inDebug ? "debug" : "release");
                    var manifestFile = buildFolder + "manifest-" + debugOrRelease + ".json";
                    var outputFolder = buildFolder + debugOrRelease + "/";

                    // Load JavaScript and CSS listed in manifest file
                        .done(function (manifest){

                            manifest.styles.forEach(function (href) {
                                var link = document.createElement("link");

                                link.rel = "stylesheet";
                       = "all";
                                link.href = outputFolder + href;


                            scriptsToLoad = manifest.scripts.length;
                            manifest.scripts.forEach(function (src) {
                                var script = document.createElement("script");

                                script.onload = onScriptLoad;
                                script.src = outputFolder + src;
                                script.async = false;


If you very carefully compare the HTML above the MVC view that it replaces you can see the commonalities. They are doing pretty much the same thing - the only real difference is the bootstrapping API. Previously it was an MVC endpoint at /Home/StartApp. Now it's a Web API endpoint at api/Startup. Here's how it works:

  1. A jQuery AJAX call kicks off a call to load the bootstrapping / app config data. Importantly this data includes whether the app is running in debug or not.
  2. Depending on the isDebug flag the app either loads the build/manifest-debug.json or build/manifest-release.json manifest.
  3. For each CSS file in the styles bundle a link element is created and added to the page.
  4. For each JavaScript file in the scripts bundle a script element is created and added to the page.

It's worth pointing out that this also has a performance edge over Web Optimization as the assets are loaded asynchronously! (Yes I know it says script.async = false but that's not what you think it is... Go read Jake's article!)

To finish off I had to make a few tweaks to my web.config:

    <!-- Allow ASP.Net to serve up JSON files -->
            <mimeMap fileExtension=".json" mimeType="application/json"/>
    <!-- The build folder (and it's child folder "debug") will not be cached.
         When people are debugging they don't want to cache -->
    <location path="build">
                <clientCache cacheControlMode="DisableCache"/>
    <!-- The release folder will be cached for a loooooong time
         When you're in Production caching is your friend -->
    <location path="build/release">
                <clientCache cacheControlMode="UseMaxAge"/>

I want to publish, how do I include my assets?

It's time for some csproj trickery. I must say I think I'll be glad to see the back of project files when ASP.Net vNext ships. This is what you need:

  <Target Name="AfterBuild">
      <!-- what ever is in the build folder should be included in the project -->
      <Content Include="build\**\*.*" />

What's happening here is that *after* a build Visual Studio considers the complete contents of the build folder to part of the project. It's after the build because the folder will be deleted and reconstructed as part of the build.